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Icaronycteris Bat

Description: The replica cast fossil bat skeleton is 4 5/8″ long X 2 3/8″ wide.

Location: Green River formation near Kemmerer, Wyoming.

Interpretation: This particular fossil holotype for this kind of bat was discovered in the early 1930s and is among the “oldest” bat fossils discovered so far. With the genus name Icaronycteris it looks like it could be a “mouse-tailed” type of bat like those in existence today.

As with all mammals, evolutionists cannot concoct a family tree for bats from the beginning of their supposed evolution, and so have no idea what the bat’s common ancestor might be. The author believes that there are lots of genera of bats living today that are variations of the original kinds of bats that God created in the beginning.

What the rock record shows is bats with bat characteristics, and not animals developing bat characteristics from other animal kinds. Bats are bats and always have been bats. That sounds like a description of creation, not evolution!


Oreodont Merycoidodon

Description: The Merycoidodon partial fossil skull is 5″ wide X 4 1/4″ deep X 8″ long. Most of the teeth are still in the skull and mandible, but the nose is missing. Upper photo shows the fossil prior to preparation. The author used special glues during removal of the fossil from the sediment in order to hold the brittle parts together in some semblance of their original construction. The Merycoidodon jaw section to the right contains 3 1/2 teeth and is 1 1/2″ wide X 1 1/2″ deep X 2 1/8″ long. 

Location: Both fossils are from the White River formation of South Dakota.

Interpretation: Oreodonts are extinct animals that are found in the rock record as a result of the global Flood at the time of Noah. Fossils indicate there were two distinct kinds, one with hoofs and the other with clawed feet. Why and when these animals went extinct is a mystery, but we know they were around for at least the 1,600 years after the fall because they are found in the rock record.

#MF7 & MF5

Archaeotherium Entelodont

Description: The Archaeotherium teeth are about 3/4″ long X 3/4″ wide X 1″ deep. The jaw section is 1 1/4″ wide X 1 3/8″ high X 2 1/4″ long. The upper photo is of a replica skull of the Archaeotherium at the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Alberta Canada.

Location: Both from the White River Badlands of South Dakota.

Interpretation: The Archaeotherium is an extinct entelodont known from the White River Badlands and the John Day Fossil Beds of Oregon as well as locations in Europe. While a few skulls and skeletal bones of these giant pigs have been discovered, the most common fossils found are teeth like those in the photo above.

Due to the large, up to three feet long, skulls with ferocious looking teeth of the animal, reconstructions are commonly showcased at natural history museums throughout the world. The protuberances on the faces of these animals look similar to those on warthogs of today.

The biblical creationist and secular evolutionist views of extinction are very different. According to the biblical view, everything was created by God “very good” in the beginning. There was no death, suffering, disease or extinction until Adam sinned and brought death into the world. Many of the life forms that have gone extinct did so as direct and consequential results of the worldwide Flood. The Bible promises that these aspects of the world will continue until Jesus Christ destroys the curse and brings a new heaven and a new earth.

The evolutionist believes that death, disease, suffering and extinction are necessary component parts of the advances over millions of years that have brought the progress that has resulted in the advent of man on earth. To the evolutionist, extinction and death are necessary parts of evolution; and the end game for the evolutionist is heat death of the entire universe.


Camel Poebrotherium

Description: The Poebrotherium replica camel skull is 8″ long X 3 7/8″ high X 1 7/8″ wide maximum. The skull is nearly complete and relatively undamaged. The fossil camel teeth/bone section to the right of the replica  consists of four molar teeth probably from the mandible. This section is 1 1/2″ long X 1 1/4″ high X 1″ wide maximum.

Location: Skull from the White River formation of Nebraska, teeth/bone section from the White River formation of South Dakota.

Interpretation: Many of the mammal fossils found in the White River Badlands are very similar to those found in the John Day Fossil Beds of Oregon. One factor both locations have in common is that the mammal fossils recovered are usually fragmentary and disarticulated. Seldom is a complete camel skull like the one in the figure above found, so the fossil fragments must be identified by the characteristics of the teeth.

The condition of the camel fossils discovered at these locations can best be explained by tectonic, volcanic and hydraulic forces assumed by biblical creationists to have acted during the Genesis Flood at the time of Noah.

#OR17 and MF10

Mesohippus Skull

Description: The replica Mesohippus skull is 8″ long X 4″ high X 3″ wide maximum. The skull is complete and relatively undamaged. The fossil teeth section consists of three complete molar teeth from the mandible. The tooth and bone section is 2 3/8″ long X 1 1/4″ high X 3/8″ wide.

Location: Skull from White River Badlands of Nebraska, teeth section from White River Badlands of South Dakota.

Interpretation: Evolutionist presuppositions start with a belief in a “common ancestor” and so evolutionists must string together fossils in a manner leading back toward said beginning life form. Biblical creationists start with a different set of presuppositions, including that God created according to kinds in the beginning. While all agree there is variation within a kind, the two paradigms are far apart when it comes to how much variation has occurred and can possibly occur.

The author believes that in the so-called “horse series” Mesohippus was created within the family including genera Hyracotherium, Orohippus, Miohippus and Protohippus. Pliohippus and Equus were created within a separate created kind.

#OR12 and MF9

Peccary Tayassu

Description: The actual (not a fossil) peccary mandible is 6 3/4″ long X 3″ high X 3 3/4″ wide maximum. The skull is 10″ long X 3 3/8″ high X 4″ wide maximum. All the teeth on the Tayassu mandible and skull show very little wear. The Perchoerus fossil tooth/bone section (center-right) consists of 2 1/2 molar teeth and is 1 1/2″ long X 15/16″ high X 3/4″ wide. The molar teeth of Perchoerus show some wear and are about thirty per cent larger than the corresponding Tayassu teeth.

Location: Tayassu skull and mandible from SW United States. Perchoerus teeth from the White River Badlands of South Dakota.

Interpretation: Peccaries are known as javelinas in the United States and are found wild in southern Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. They also inhabit areas of South America. They are not pigs, but have a number of similarities to pigs. The teeth of Tayassu and Perchoerus can be seen to be very similar in the photo above. The molar teeth of peccaries and humans are very similar as well. They are so similar that an extinct peccary fossil tooth was once misidentified by evolutionists as belonging to an ape-like human ancestor. The imagined human ancestor with the peccary-like teeth was called Nebraska Man. When all the characteristics of peccaries are considered, an argument can be made that it makes sense to categorize the peccary as another living fossil.

In the book Discovering the Animals of Ancient Oregon, the author wrote, “The facts are harmonious with the biblical creationist view that peccaries are one created kind, the variations found are due to God-designed built-in genome adaptability prior to and after the Flood, and their damaged skulls and teeth are found scattered about as a result of the Genesis Flood.”

#OR15 and MF8

Hoplophoneus Cat

Description: The Hoplophoneus replica mandible is 5″ long X 2 1/4″ high X 3″ wide maximum. The skull is 7″ long X 4 1/4″ high X 4 1/2″ wide. The longest sabre-tooth canine extends 2 5/8″ from the skull.

Location: White River formation of South Dakota.

Interpretation: There is minimal variation in fossil cats excepting for the size of the canine teeth. It makes sense that these teeth could have varied as allowed by the inherent DNA over the 1,600 year period from the fall to the Flood. God probably chose a pair of representative cats to go on the ark from among the variety that had adapted to the ecological conditions up to that time. From those two cats developed, over a period of 4,500 years since the Flood, the variety of cats that we see today in the world.


Hesperocyon Dog

Description: The skull is 4″ long X 2″ wide X 1 3/4″ high. The canine teeth extend 3/8″ from the skull. This cast is of a nearly perfect fossil Hesperocyon skull.

Location: Green River formation of Wyoming.

Interpretation: Probably the most amazing fact about the study of fossil dogs is that there is more variation in the skulls of today’s artificially selected dogs than in fossil dogs. In artificial selection (breeding) humans have much more control over which animals mate than would be expected from natural conditions. The dog fossils from the Flood indicate those dogs were very similar to those extant today.

Another factor in the variation may be that there was only about one-third the time available for variation to occur in dogs between the fall and the Flood compared to the time since the Flood. Of course, the conditions prior to the Flood were much different from those after, so time may not be a significant factor in this variation.


Hyracodon Mandible

Description: The left portion of the mandible of the Hyracodon fossil has four molars intact. The right side has 5 1/2 molars intact with a tooth-row length of 4 1/2″ and the mandible width is 2 7/8″. All of the teeth chewing surfaces show considerable wear. The bone is completely permineralized and all front teeth along with the skull are missing.

Location: White River formation, Pennington County, South Dakota.

Interpretation: Hyracodon fossils represent an extinct rhinoceros type of animal found in America in the White River formation. The specimen above is a relatively inexpensive fossil bought as a matrix “glob” by the author to practice preparation techniques. This fossil was cracked and smashed by overburden and/or burial and transportation forces. No predator actions are indicated. As with many fossils, using biblical presuppositions, it can be assumed that the Hyracodon mammal’s skeleton was disarticulated, transported and buried by the cataclysmic actions of the Genesis Flood. Eventually, it was uncovered by the extreme erosional actions of the badlands.


Armored Mammal Glyptodon

Description: The Glyptodon scute is 1 5/8″ wide X 1 7/8″ long X 15/16″ thick. A portion of the upper left is missing. The Glytpodon reconstruction in the image above the scute is from the Houston Museum of Natural Science.

Location: Argentina, South America

Interpretation: Turtles, tortoises, and crocodilians all have osteoderms that cover the exterior surfaces of their bodies to protect their inside organs. The giant crocodile Sarcosuchus from the rock record had huge scutes up to twelve inches long. The Armor-Backed and the Club-Tailed dinosaurs also had body armor. The Glyptodon is an extinct armored mammal quite different from each of those armored animals mentioned.

Evolutionists assume that all these different kinds of animals must have evolved their armor along separate paths. The biblical creationist assumption is that God designed each animal to have armor as required to best survive. As with other defining obviously-designed characteristics, there is much variation within each of the created kinds, but there was no evolution form an imagined common ancestor over millions of years. For these similar characteristics in different animals, a Common Designer was involved in each of their designs.


Whale Ear Bone

Description: The tympanic bulla (ear bone) fossil is 4″ long X 1 5/8″ wide X 1 1/4″ thick and is completely permineralized. The specimen is very complete with many fine details visible.

 Location: South Carolina.

Interpretation: According to the Bible, animals in the oceans did not come onto the ark with Noah and many survived the Flood so as to exist today. 

The design of fossilized whale ear bones and existing whale ear bones are the same or very similar. The ear bones of whales are not at all like the ear bones of the land animals that secularists believe whales evolved from. Whales and other sea creatures were created on Day Five, a day before the land animals were created on Day Six. According to the Bible, the sea creatures all preceded the land creatures; a fact that evolutionists reject.

Evolutionists propose that whales evolved from some sort of hoofed land animal. This is nothing but a fairy tale! For more information on this click HERE.



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